Wednesday, July 14, 2010


1. Understanding
Motor vehicles using fuel as an energy source to move. There are two types of fuel combustion is complete combustion and incomplete combustion. In perfect combustion, all hydrocarbon compounds react out so it will produce CO2, H2O, and N2. While incomplete combustion will produce carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons would react with ozone forming nidrogen oxides, gases that cause air pollution, other than those substances that are polluting substances are: particulates, sulfur oxides, and metals and lead. To all of those substances can cause damage to the human body if inhaled, such as lung damage. So the conclusion is the result / the remnants from the combustion of petroleum products are not perfect which can damage the body if inhaled directly.

2. Impact of CO
CO gas produced from burning fuels that are not perfect. One cause of incomplete combustion is the lack of oxygen. Traffic fumes are a major source for carbon monoxide in various cities. Data revealed that 60% of air pollution in large cities due to public transport. Carbon monoxide is poisonous, causing a drop in fetal weight, increased infant mortality, and cause brain damage.

3. Ozone Impact
Ozone is a highly toxic gas and smelly rice pest, ozone can be formed when electric sparks passing in oxygen. The presence of ozone itself can be detected by smell caused by the electric-powered machines, ozone is an oxidizing substance which is better, ozone is more active than ordinary oxygen. Normally in daily life, the ozone used for water purification process, the sterilization of air, and bleaching certain foods. In the atmosphere, the ozone from nitrogen oxides and organic gases generated by vehicle and industrial emissions. In addition it may cause serious damage to plants, ozone is also dangerous for health, especially respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and asthma.

4. Particulate Impact
Particulates or particulate matter are pollutants in both liquid is dispersed in the air. It can be either particulate dust, ash, soot, smoke, steam, mist, or aerosol. There are two kinds of particulate coarse particulates and fine particulates, coarse paritkulat sized diameters between 2.5 mm to 10 mm, whereas the diameter of fine particulates less than 2.5 mm and smaller than the size of a small rambut.partikel can join together other to form larger particles. One form is the particulate sulfur contained in diesel fuel. Sulfur in the form of particulates can affect health through the process of swelling due to irritation of mucous membrane that inhibit the flow of air in the respiratory tract.

5. Impact of Metal Lead
TEL can increase octane, but the use of TEL in gasoline actually causes negative impacts. TEL mixed with gasoline will produce exhaust gas containing the metal lead. Metal Lead enters the body through the respiratory tract, mouth, and skin. Pb which enter into our bodies accumulate mostly into the bone, before finally entered into the blood. Lead metal is known as a neurotoxin (nerve poison the attacker). If you've already entered into the human body most likely can not be expelled through the body's metabolism.
According to the research, heavy metals can be reduced intelligence, inhibits the growth reduces the ability to hear and understand language, and eliminate the concentration of children.
The size of the effect of lead depends on the concentration and duration of a person exposed to toxic lead. Moreover, the effects of lead are also dependent on the age a person. The younger the age, the more serious the effect. No wonder most of the victims are children lead. Seven out of ten newborns in Mexico, has a blood lead level higher than that allowed by WHO standards. Data in Bandung indicates that in the air lead level has reached above 2 milligrams per cubic meter and 30% of children of school age have blood lead level exceeding the threshold.

6. How to cope with the impact of the use of petroleum
Prevention of air pollution resulting from the use of fuel dapatdilakukan in various ways, here are some efforts that have been done from the experts.
a) Producing Lead-Free Gasoline
Tel added to gasoline to improve its quality. However, with the known effects of lead on health, making questionable use of lead in gasoline. The scientists began looking for a replacement TEL, including methyl-tertiary-buthylether (MTBE). MTBE has the same function with TEL but is nondegradable substances (difficult to decompose in the soil). In addition, MTBE is also not soluble in water, can be imagined if MTBE is leaking and seeping into the ground or into waters so what happens is that water pollution can be avoided and MTBE tifak also carcinogenic.
Indonesia launched a program GoI free gasoline. To support the program, Pertamina to modify the oil refineries that can produce unleaded gasoline. Oil refineries that have tools that generate HOMC reformer (High Octane Motor Component)
b) Produce Bioethanol as Substitute for Gasoline
Bioethanol is ethanol produced from plants such as sugarcane juice which is usually used for sugar water. Bioethanol can be used as vehicle fuel, either pure or blended with gasoline. Gasoline blended with alcohol is called Gasohol. Burning bioethanol create net CO2 to the environment because the same substance would be needed umtuk plant growth as a raw material for bioethanol.
c) Producing Biodiesel For Diesel Fuel Substitute
Biodiesel fuel derived from plant or animal dies that reacted with methanol (transersterifikasi process) in order to obtain oil methyl ester (ME) is often called Biodiesel. There are more than 40 types of potentially edible oil as biodiesel in Indonesia, including castor oil, coconut oil, soybean oil, cotton and oil.
Biodiesel is very easy to use and can be directly entered into the diesel engine without modifying the machine. Moreover, it can be mixed with diesel to produce biodiesel blend had a higher cetane up to 64. Moreover, biodiesel also acts as a lubricant as well as cleaning the injectors, and can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, dangerous, and sulfur dioxide. Biodiesel is environmentally friendly because it proved to contain no sulfur oxides.
d) Develop Electric Cars
Electric car is a car that uses electricity as its power source. The car was in Indonesia developed by LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Sciences) under the brand Marlip (marmot Electric LIPI). Marlip mechanically driven by electricity.
e) Develop Hybrid Cars
Energy needed to drive hybrid cars come from a combination of internal combustion engine (fuel energy sources) and electric (battery energy sources). With the combined energy use, the use of fuel becomes relatively more efficient. Rechargeable battery (recharge) at the time the vehicle stops. Another plus, the emission output of internal combustion engines used to drive generators.

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